3c916f4d340689ef2230978387c6dae0ca8ddb29
[pulseview.git] / pv / views / tabular_decoder / view.cpp
1 /*
2  * This file is part of the PulseView project.
3  *
4  * Copyright (C) 2020 Soeren Apel <soeren@apelpie.net>
5  *
6  * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
7  * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
8  * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
9  * (at your option) any later version.
10  *
11  * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
12  * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
13  * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
14  * GNU General Public License for more details.
15  *
16  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
17  * along with this program; if not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
18  */
19
20 #include <climits>
21
22 #include <QApplication>
23 #include <QDebug>
24 #include <QFileDialog>
25 #include <QFontMetrics>
26 #include <QHeaderView>
27 #include <QLabel>
28 #include <QMenu>
29 #include <QMessageBox>
30 #include <QToolBar>
31 #include <QVBoxLayout>
32
33 #include <libsigrokdecode/libsigrokdecode.h>
34
35 #include "view.hpp"
36
37 #include "pv/globalsettings.hpp"
38 #include "pv/session.hpp"
39 #include "pv/util.hpp"
40 #include "pv/data/decode/decoder.hpp"
41
42 using pv::data::DecodeSignal;
43 using pv::data::SignalBase;
44 using pv::data::decode::Decoder;
45 using pv::util::Timestamp;
46
47 using std::make_shared;
48 using std::max;
49 using std::shared_ptr;
50
51 namespace pv {
52 namespace views {
53 namespace tabular_decoder {
54
55 const char* SaveTypeNames[SaveTypeCount] = {
56         "CSV, commas escaped",
57         "CSV, fields quoted"
58 };
59
60 const char* ViewModeNames[ViewModeCount] = {
61         "Show all",
62         "Show all and focus on newest",
63         "Show visible in main view"
64 };
65
66
67 CustomFilterProxyModel::CustomFilterProxyModel(QObject* parent) :
68         QSortFilterProxyModel(parent),
69         range_filtering_enabled_(false)
70 {
71 }
72
73 bool CustomFilterProxyModel::filterAcceptsRow(int sourceRow,
74         const QModelIndex &sourceParent) const
75 {
76         (void)sourceParent;
77         assert(sourceModel() != nullptr);
78
79         bool result = true;
80
81         if (range_filtering_enabled_) {
82                 const QModelIndex ann_start_sample_idx = sourceModel()->index(sourceRow, 0);
83                 const uint64_t ann_start_sample =
84                         sourceModel()->data(ann_start_sample_idx, Qt::DisplayRole).toULongLong();
85
86                 const QModelIndex ann_end_sample_idx = sourceModel()->index(sourceRow, 6);
87                 const uint64_t ann_end_sample =
88                         sourceModel()->data(ann_end_sample_idx, Qt::DisplayRole).toULongLong();
89
90                 // We consider all annotations as visible that either
91                 // a) begin to the left of the range and end within the range or
92                 // b) begin and end within the range or
93                 // c) begin within the range and end to the right of the range
94                 // ...which is equivalent to the negation of "begins and ends outside the range"
95
96                 const bool left_of_range = (ann_end_sample < range_start_sample_);
97                 const bool right_of_range = (ann_start_sample > range_end_sample_);
98                 const bool entirely_outside_of_range = left_of_range || right_of_range;
99
100                 result = !entirely_outside_of_range;
101         }
102
103         return result;
104 }
105
106 void CustomFilterProxyModel::set_sample_range(uint64_t start_sample,
107         uint64_t end_sample)
108 {
109         range_start_sample_ = start_sample;
110         range_end_sample_ = end_sample;
111
112         invalidateFilter();
113 }
114
115 void CustomFilterProxyModel::enable_range_filtering(bool value)
116 {
117         range_filtering_enabled_ = value;
118
119         invalidateFilter();
120 }
121
122
123 QSize CustomTableView::minimumSizeHint() const
124 {
125         QSize size(QTableView::sizeHint());
126
127         int width = 0;
128         for (int i = 0; i < horizontalHeader()->count(); i++)
129                 if (!horizontalHeader()->isSectionHidden(i))
130                         width += horizontalHeader()->sectionSize(i);
131
132         size.setWidth(width + (horizontalHeader()->count() * 1));
133
134         return size;
135 }
136
137 QSize CustomTableView::sizeHint() const
138 {
139         return minimumSizeHint();
140 }
141
142
143 View::View(Session &session, bool is_main_view, QMainWindow *parent) :
144         ViewBase(session, is_main_view, parent),
145
146         // Note: Place defaults in View::reset_view_state(), not here
147         parent_(parent),
148         decoder_selector_(new QComboBox()),
149         hide_hidden_cb_(new QCheckBox()),
150         view_mode_selector_(new QComboBox()),
151         save_button_(new QToolButton()),
152         save_action_(new QAction(this)),
153         table_view_(new CustomTableView()),
154         model_(new AnnotationCollectionModel(this)),
155         filter_proxy_model_(new CustomFilterProxyModel(this)),
156         signal_(nullptr)
157 {
158         QVBoxLayout *root_layout = new QVBoxLayout(this);
159         root_layout->setContentsMargins(0, 0, 0, 0);
160         root_layout->addWidget(table_view_);
161
162         // Create toolbar
163         QToolBar* toolbar = new QToolBar();
164         toolbar->setContextMenuPolicy(Qt::PreventContextMenu);
165         parent->addToolBar(toolbar);
166
167         // Populate toolbar
168         toolbar->addWidget(new QLabel(tr("Decoder:")));
169         toolbar->addWidget(decoder_selector_);
170         toolbar->addSeparator();
171         toolbar->addWidget(save_button_);
172         toolbar->addSeparator();
173         toolbar->addWidget(view_mode_selector_);
174         toolbar->addSeparator();
175         toolbar->addWidget(hide_hidden_cb_);
176
177         connect(decoder_selector_, SIGNAL(currentIndexChanged(int)),
178                 this, SLOT(on_selected_decoder_changed(int)));
179         connect(view_mode_selector_, SIGNAL(currentIndexChanged(int)),
180                 this, SLOT(on_view_mode_changed(int)));
181         connect(hide_hidden_cb_, SIGNAL(toggled(bool)),
182                 this, SLOT(on_hide_hidden_changed(bool)));
183
184         // Configure widgets
185         decoder_selector_->setSizeAdjustPolicy(QComboBox::AdjustToContents);
186
187         for (int i = 0; i < ViewModeCount; i++)
188                 view_mode_selector_->addItem(ViewModeNames[i], QVariant::fromValue(i));
189
190         hide_hidden_cb_->setText(tr("Hide Hidden Rows/Classes"));
191         hide_hidden_cb_->setChecked(true);
192
193         // Configure actions
194         save_action_->setText(tr("&Save..."));
195         save_action_->setIcon(QIcon::fromTheme("document-save-as",
196                 QIcon(":/icons/document-save-as.png")));
197         save_action_->setShortcut(QKeySequence(Qt::CTRL + Qt::Key_S));
198         connect(save_action_, SIGNAL(triggered(bool)),
199                 this, SLOT(on_actionSave_triggered()));
200
201         QMenu *save_menu = new QMenu();
202         connect(save_menu, SIGNAL(triggered(QAction*)),
203                 this, SLOT(on_actionSave_triggered(QAction*)));
204
205         for (int i = 0; i < SaveTypeCount; i++) {
206                 QAction *const action = save_menu->addAction(tr(SaveTypeNames[i]));
207                 action->setData(QVariant::fromValue(i));
208         }
209
210         save_button_->setMenu(save_menu);
211         save_button_->setDefaultAction(save_action_);
212         save_button_->setPopupMode(QToolButton::MenuButtonPopup);
213
214         // Set up the models and the table view
215         filter_proxy_model_->setSourceModel(model_);
216         table_view_->setModel(filter_proxy_model_);
217
218         table_view_->setSelectionBehavior(QAbstractItemView::SelectRows);
219         table_view_->setSelectionMode(QAbstractItemView::ContiguousSelection);
220         table_view_->setSortingEnabled(true);
221         table_view_->sortByColumn(0, Qt::AscendingOrder);
222
223         for (uint8_t i = model_->first_hidden_column(); i < model_->columnCount(); i++)
224                 table_view_->setColumnHidden(i, true);
225
226         const int font_height = QFontMetrics(QApplication::font()).height();
227         table_view_->verticalHeader()->setDefaultSectionSize((font_height * 5) / 4);
228         table_view_->verticalHeader()->setVisible(false);
229
230         table_view_->horizontalHeader()->setStretchLastSection(true);
231         table_view_->horizontalHeader()->setCascadingSectionResizes(true);
232         table_view_->horizontalHeader()->setSectionsMovable(true);
233         table_view_->horizontalHeader()->setContextMenuPolicy(Qt::CustomContextMenu);
234
235         table_view_->setSizePolicy(QSizePolicy::Expanding, QSizePolicy::Expanding);
236         parent->setSizePolicy(table_view_->sizePolicy());
237
238         connect(table_view_, SIGNAL(clicked(const QModelIndex&)),
239                 this, SLOT(on_table_item_clicked(const QModelIndex&)));
240         connect(table_view_, SIGNAL(doubleClicked(const QModelIndex&)),
241                 this, SLOT(on_table_item_double_clicked(const QModelIndex&)));
242         connect(table_view_->horizontalHeader(), SIGNAL(customContextMenuRequested(const QPoint&)),
243                 this, SLOT(on_table_header_requested(const QPoint&)));
244
245         // Set up metadata event handler
246         session_.metadata_obj_manager()->add_observer(this);
247
248         reset_view_state();
249 }
250
251 View::~View()
252 {
253         session_.metadata_obj_manager()->remove_observer(this);
254 }
255
256 ViewType View::get_type() const
257 {
258         return ViewTypeTabularDecoder;
259 }
260
261 void View::reset_view_state()
262 {
263         ViewBase::reset_view_state();
264
265         decoder_selector_->clear();
266 }
267
268 void View::clear_decode_signals()
269 {
270         ViewBase::clear_decode_signals();
271
272         reset_data();
273         reset_view_state();
274 }
275
276 void View::add_decode_signal(shared_ptr<data::DecodeSignal> signal)
277 {
278         ViewBase::add_decode_signal(signal);
279
280         connect(signal.get(), SIGNAL(name_changed(const QString&)),
281                 this, SLOT(on_signal_name_changed(const QString&)));
282
283         // Note: At time of initial creation, decode signals have no decoders so we
284         // need to watch for decoder stacking events
285
286         connect(signal.get(), SIGNAL(decoder_stacked(void*)),
287                 this, SLOT(on_decoder_stacked(void*)));
288         connect(signal.get(), SIGNAL(decoder_removed(void*)),
289                 this, SLOT(on_decoder_removed(void*)));
290
291         // Add the top-level decoder provided by an already-existing signal
292         auto stack = signal->decoder_stack();
293         if (!stack.empty()) {
294                 shared_ptr<Decoder>& dec = stack.at(0);
295                 decoder_selector_->addItem(signal->name(), QVariant::fromValue((void*)dec.get()));
296         }
297 }
298
299 void View::remove_decode_signal(shared_ptr<data::DecodeSignal> signal)
300 {
301         // Remove all decoders provided by this signal
302         for (const shared_ptr<Decoder>& dec : signal->decoder_stack()) {
303                 int index = decoder_selector_->findData(QVariant::fromValue((void*)dec.get()));
304
305                 if (index != -1)
306                         decoder_selector_->removeItem(index);
307         }
308
309         ViewBase::remove_decode_signal(signal);
310
311         if (signal.get() == signal_) {
312                 reset_data();
313                 update_data();
314                 reset_view_state();
315         }
316 }
317
318 void View::save_settings(QSettings &settings) const
319 {
320         ViewBase::save_settings(settings);
321
322         settings.setValue("view_mode", view_mode_selector_->currentIndex());
323         settings.setValue("hide_hidden", hide_hidden_cb_->isChecked());
324 }
325
326 void View::restore_settings(QSettings &settings)
327 {
328         ViewBase::restore_settings(settings);
329
330         if (settings.contains("view_mode"))
331                 view_mode_selector_->setCurrentIndex(settings.value("view_mode").toInt());
332
333         if (settings.contains("hide_hidden"))
334                 hide_hidden_cb_->setChecked(settings.value("hide_hidden").toBool());
335 }
336
337 void View::reset_data()
338 {
339         signal_ = nullptr;
340         decoder_ = nullptr;
341 }
342
343 void View::update_data()
344 {
345         model_->set_signal_and_segment(signal_, current_segment_);
346 }
347
348 void View::save_data_as_csv(unsigned int save_type) const
349 {
350         // Note: We try to follow RFC 4180 (https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4180)
351
352         assert(decoder_);
353         assert(signal_);
354
355         if (!signal_)
356                 return;
357
358         const bool save_all = !table_view_->selectionModel()->hasSelection();
359
360         GlobalSettings settings;
361         const QString dir = settings.value("MainWindow/SaveDirectory").toString();
362
363         const QString file_name = QFileDialog::getSaveFileName(
364                 parent_, tr("Save Annotations as CSV"), dir, tr("CSV Files (*.csv);;Text Files (*.txt);;All Files (*)"));
365
366         if (file_name.isEmpty())
367                 return;
368
369         QFile file(file_name);
370         if (file.open(QIODevice::WriteOnly | QIODevice::Truncate)) {
371                 QTextStream out_stream(&file);
372
373                 if (save_all)
374                         table_view_->selectAll();
375
376                 // Write out header columns in visual order, not logical order
377                 for (int i = 0; i < table_view_->horizontalHeader()->count(); i++) {
378                         int column = table_view_->horizontalHeader()->logicalIndex(i);
379
380                         if (table_view_->horizontalHeader()->isSectionHidden(column))
381                                 continue;
382
383                         const QString title = filter_proxy_model_->headerData(column, Qt::Horizontal, Qt::DisplayRole).toString();
384
385                         if (save_type == SaveTypeCSVEscaped)
386                                 out_stream << title;
387                         else
388                                 out_stream << '"' << title << '"';
389
390                         if (i < (table_view_->horizontalHeader()->count() - 1))
391                                 out_stream << ",";
392                 }
393                 out_stream << '\r' << '\n';
394
395
396                 QModelIndexList selected_rows = table_view_->selectionModel()->selectedRows();
397
398                 for (int i = 0; i < selected_rows.size(); i++) {
399                         const int row = selected_rows.at(i).row();
400
401                         // Write out columns in visual order, not logical order
402                         for (int c = 0; c < table_view_->horizontalHeader()->count(); c++) {
403                                 const int column = table_view_->horizontalHeader()->logicalIndex(c);
404
405                                 if (table_view_->horizontalHeader()->isSectionHidden(column))
406                                         continue;
407
408                                 const QModelIndex idx = filter_proxy_model_->index(row, column);
409                                 QString s = filter_proxy_model_->data(idx, Qt::DisplayRole).toString();
410
411                                 if (save_type == SaveTypeCSVEscaped)
412                                         out_stream << s.replace(",", "\\,");
413                                 else
414                                         out_stream << '"' << s.replace("\"", "\"\"") << '"';
415
416                                 if (c < (table_view_->horizontalHeader()->count() - 1))
417                                         out_stream << ",";
418                         }
419
420                         out_stream << '\r' << '\n';
421                 }
422
423                 if (out_stream.status() == QTextStream::Ok) {
424                         if (save_all)
425                                 table_view_->clearSelection();
426
427                         return;
428                 }
429         }
430
431         QMessageBox msg(parent_);
432         msg.setText(tr("Error") + "\n\n" + tr("File %1 could not be written to.").arg(file_name));
433         msg.setStandardButtons(QMessageBox::Ok);
434         msg.setIcon(QMessageBox::Warning);
435         msg.exec();
436 }
437
438 void View::on_selected_decoder_changed(int index)
439 {
440         if (signal_) {
441                 disconnect(signal_, SIGNAL(color_changed(QColor)));
442                 disconnect(signal_, SIGNAL(new_annotations()));
443                 disconnect(signal_, SIGNAL(decode_reset()));
444         }
445
446         reset_data();
447
448         decoder_ = (Decoder*)decoder_selector_->itemData(index).value<void*>();
449
450         // Find the signal that contains the selected decoder
451         for (const shared_ptr<DecodeSignal>& ds : decode_signals_)
452                 for (const shared_ptr<Decoder>& dec : ds->decoder_stack())
453                         if (decoder_ == dec.get())
454                                 signal_ = ds.get();
455
456         if (signal_) {
457                 connect(signal_, SIGNAL(color_changed(QColor)), this, SLOT(on_signal_color_changed(QColor)));
458                 connect(signal_, SIGNAL(new_annotations()), this, SLOT(on_new_annotations()));
459                 connect(signal_, SIGNAL(decode_reset()), this, SLOT(on_decoder_reset()));
460         }
461
462         update_data();
463 }
464
465 void View::on_hide_hidden_changed(bool checked)
466 {
467         model_->set_hide_hidden(checked);
468
469         // Force repaint, otherwise the new selection isn't shown for some reason
470         table_view_->viewport()->update();
471 }
472
473 void View::on_view_mode_changed(int index)
474 {
475         if (index == ViewModeAll)
476                 filter_proxy_model_->enable_range_filtering(false);
477
478         if (index == ViewModeVisible) {
479                 MetadataObject *md_obj =
480                         session_.metadata_obj_manager()->find_object_by_type(MetadataObjMainViewRange);
481                 assert(md_obj);
482
483                 int64_t start_sample = md_obj->value(MetadataValueStartSample).toLongLong();
484                 int64_t end_sample = md_obj->value(MetadataValueEndSample).toLongLong();
485
486                 filter_proxy_model_->enable_range_filtering(true);
487                 filter_proxy_model_->set_sample_range(max((int64_t)0, start_sample),
488                         max((int64_t)0, end_sample));
489         }
490
491         if (index == ViewModeLatest) {
492                 filter_proxy_model_->enable_range_filtering(false);
493
494                 table_view_->scrollTo(
495                         filter_proxy_model_->mapFromSource(model_->index(model_->rowCount() - 1, 0)),
496                         QAbstractItemView::PositionAtBottom);
497         }
498 }
499
500 void View::on_signal_name_changed(const QString &name)
501 {
502         (void)name;
503
504         SignalBase* sb = qobject_cast<SignalBase*>(QObject::sender());
505         assert(sb);
506
507         DecodeSignal* signal = dynamic_cast<DecodeSignal*>(sb);
508         assert(signal);
509
510         // Update the top-level decoder provided by this signal
511         auto stack = signal->decoder_stack();
512         if (!stack.empty()) {
513                 shared_ptr<Decoder>& dec = stack.at(0);
514                 int index = decoder_selector_->findData(QVariant::fromValue((void*)dec.get()));
515
516                 if (index != -1)
517                         decoder_selector_->setItemText(index, signal->name());
518         }
519 }
520
521 void View::on_signal_color_changed(const QColor &color)
522 {
523         (void)color;
524
525         table_view_->update();
526 }
527
528 void View::on_new_annotations()
529 {
530         if (view_mode_selector_->currentIndex() == ViewModeLatest) {
531                 update_data();
532                 table_view_->scrollTo(model_->index(model_->rowCount() - 1, 0),
533                         QAbstractItemView::PositionAtBottom);
534         } else {
535                 if (!delayed_view_updater_.isActive())
536                         delayed_view_updater_.start();
537         }
538 }
539
540 void View::on_decoder_reset()
541 {
542         // Invalidate the model's data connection immediately - otherwise we
543         // will use a stale pointer in model_->index() when called from the table view
544         model_->set_signal_and_segment(signal_, current_segment_);
545 }
546
547 void View::on_decoder_stacked(void* decoder)
548 {
549         Decoder* d = static_cast<Decoder*>(decoder);
550
551         // Find the signal that contains the selected decoder
552         DecodeSignal* signal = nullptr;
553
554         for (const shared_ptr<DecodeSignal>& ds : decode_signals_)
555                 for (const shared_ptr<Decoder>& dec : ds->decoder_stack())
556                         if (d == dec.get())
557                                 signal = ds.get();
558
559         assert(signal);
560
561         const shared_ptr<Decoder>& dec = signal->decoder_stack().at(0);
562         int index = decoder_selector_->findData(QVariant::fromValue((void*)dec.get()));
563
564         if (index == -1) {
565                 // Add the decoder to the list
566                 decoder_selector_->addItem(signal->name(), QVariant::fromValue((void*)d));
567         }
568 }
569
570 void View::on_decoder_removed(void* decoder)
571 {
572         Decoder* d = static_cast<Decoder*>(decoder);
573
574         // Remove the decoder from the list
575         int index = decoder_selector_->findData(QVariant::fromValue((void*)d));
576
577         if (index != -1)
578                 decoder_selector_->removeItem(index);
579 }
580
581 void View::on_actionSave_triggered(QAction* action)
582 {
583         int save_type = SaveTypeCSVQuoted;
584
585         if (action)
586                 save_type = action->data().toInt();
587
588         save_data_as_csv(save_type);
589 }
590
591 void View::on_table_item_clicked(const QModelIndex& index)
592 {
593         (void)index;
594
595         // Force repaint, otherwise the new selection isn't shown for some reason
596         table_view_->viewport()->update();
597 }
598
599 void View::on_table_item_double_clicked(const QModelIndex& index)
600 {
601         const Annotation* ann = static_cast<const Annotation*>(index.internalPointer());
602
603         shared_ptr<views::ViewBase> main_view = session_.main_view();
604
605         main_view->focus_on_range(ann->start_sample(), ann->end_sample());
606 }
607
608 void View::on_table_header_requested(const QPoint& pos)
609 {
610         QMenu* menu = new QMenu(this);
611
612         for (int i = 0; i < table_view_->horizontalHeader()->count(); i++) {
613                 int column = table_view_->horizontalHeader()->logicalIndex(i);
614
615                 const QString title = model_->headerData(column, Qt::Horizontal, Qt::DisplayRole).toString();
616                 QAction* action = new QAction(title, this);
617
618                 action->setCheckable(true);
619                 action->setChecked(!table_view_->horizontalHeader()->isSectionHidden(column));
620                 action->setData(column);
621
622                 connect(action, SIGNAL(toggled(bool)), this, SLOT(on_table_header_toggled(bool)));
623
624                 menu->addAction(action);
625         }
626
627         menu->popup(table_view_->horizontalHeader()->viewport()->mapToGlobal(pos));
628 }
629
630 void View::on_table_header_toggled(bool checked)
631 {
632         QAction* action = qobject_cast<QAction*>(QObject::sender());
633         assert(action);
634
635         const int column = action->data().toInt();
636
637         table_view_->horizontalHeader()->setSectionHidden(column, !checked);
638 }
639
640 void View::on_metadata_object_changed(MetadataObject* obj,
641         MetadataValueType value_type)
642 {
643         // Check if we need to update the model's data range. We only work on the
644         // end sample value because the start sample value is updated first and
645         // we don't want to update the model twice
646
647         if ((view_mode_selector_->currentIndex() == ViewModeVisible) &&
648                 (obj->type() == MetadataObjMainViewRange) &&
649                 (value_type == MetadataValueEndSample)) {
650
651                 int64_t start_sample = obj->value(MetadataValueStartSample).toLongLong();
652                 int64_t end_sample = obj->value(MetadataValueEndSample).toLongLong();
653
654                 filter_proxy_model_->set_sample_range(max((int64_t)0, start_sample),
655                         max((int64_t)0, end_sample));
656         }
657
658         if (obj->type() == MetadataObjMousePos) {
659                 QModelIndex first_visible_idx =
660                         filter_proxy_model_->mapToSource(filter_proxy_model_->index(0, 0));
661                 QModelIndex last_visible_idx =
662                         filter_proxy_model_->mapToSource(filter_proxy_model_->index(filter_proxy_model_->rowCount() - 1, 0));
663
664                 if (first_visible_idx.isValid()) {
665                         const QModelIndex first_highlighted_idx =
666                                 model_->update_highlighted_rows(first_visible_idx, last_visible_idx,
667                                         obj->value(MetadataValueStartSample).toLongLong());
668
669                         if (view_mode_selector_->currentIndex() == ViewModeVisible) {
670                                 const QModelIndex idx = filter_proxy_model_->mapFromSource(first_highlighted_idx);
671                                 table_view_->scrollTo(idx, QAbstractItemView::EnsureVisible);
672                         }
673                 }
674         }
675 }
676
677 void View::perform_delayed_view_update()
678 {
679         update_data();
680 }
681
682
683 } // namespace tabular_decoder
684 } // namespace views
685 } // namespace pv